Connecting to your virtual machine
Keypair-based SSH connection
Before connecting to your virtual machine, you can check its status in the Instances view of the cPouta/ePouta web interface.
Figure The Instances view of the cPouta web interface.
The figure above shows a sample of the Instances view in cPouta web interface. In this case, we can see that a virtual machine called test-instance-1 is active and running. The machine has two IP addresses, of which the address 126.96.36.199 is the public one. The machine uses a keypair called skapoor. The ePouta web interface looks similar but the instances in ePouta have only one IP address field specified which is the virtual machine's local IP.
When your virtual machine has a public floating IP assigned in the cPouta cloud (or VM local IP in the case of ePouta) and a security group that allows SSH, you can open a remote SSH connection to your instance. Any standard SSH client should work.
A new virtual machine only has a default user account and the root or administrator account, or in some cases, only the root account. The user account name depends on the image used. For images provided by CSC, it has usually been "cloud-user", but we are moving towards using the image's upstream defaults. For example, Ubuntu images use "ubuntu". You can only log in using keypair-based authentication, such as:
#for cPouta CentOS VMs ssh cloud-user@public-ip -i keyfile.pem #for cPouta Ubuntu VMs ssh ubuntu@public-ip -i keyfile.pem #for ePouta CentOS VMs ssh cloud-user@vm-ip -i keyfile.pem #for ePouta Ubuntu VMs ssh ubuntu@vm-ip -i keyfile.pem
With the default CSC images, when you try logging in as root, you get a message that tells you which username to use instead. Some third-party images may use the root account directly or a completely different username.
Instead of specifying the path to the key to use for the SSH connection each time, you can use an SSH agent. To use a SSH agent in your local Linux or Mac OS X machine, start a shell and run the following commands:
ssh-agent /bin/bash ssh-add ~/.ssh/keyname.pem
Now you should be able to connect to the public floating IP of your VM in cPouta (or VM local IP in case of ePouta) using SSH without the need of specifying the key:
#for cPouta VMs ssh cloud-user@public-ip #for ePouta VMs ssh cloud-user@vm-ip
You can enable agent forwarding when connecting through SSH to a virtual machine by using the -A flag.
ssh -A cloud-user@public-ip
By enabling agent forwarding, you enable the ssh agent running on the virtual machine to make use of the keys which are loaded in the ssh agent of your local workstation. You can use this feature to reduce the number of floating IPs used in your project:
- Assign a floating IP to one of your instances
- ssh to the instance enabling agent forwarding
- You can now ssh from this instance to the other instances in the network using their private IP
Using these steps, you need only a single public IP instead of one public IP for each of the instances.
Warning: using agent forwarding has some security implications which might be unacceptable in certain environments or for certain security policies.
Getting root access on a virtual machine
If you logged in using a default user account, you will be able to run commands as root with sudo:
sudo <some command>
You can also get a root shell:
None of the accounts in the default images provided by CSC have password login enabled. In these images, you can utilize sudo without a password. If accounts that do not have root access are needed, they need to be created separately.
Connect to a machine using the Pouta virtual console
The recommended way of accessing Pouta instances is through an SSH connection, as explained earlier. Nevertheless, if you suddenly find yourself experiencing issues with the SSH connection for example, the web interface includes a console tool that you can use to access your virtual machine directly.
In order to be able to use the console, you need to set up a password-based user account first. Once connected through SSH to your instance, you can use tools such as useradd and passwd to set up this type of account. As indicated in our security guidelines, please do not enable remote login for this password-based account, but rather use it only in case you need to access the instance though the console.
You can open a console session by clicking Console in the instance dropdown menu:
To input text in the console, click the grey bar:
After this, you can log in with the user account and password you have created.
Umlaut characters, such as ä or ö, do not work in the virtual console for most keymaps.